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Messenger RNA Timeline

1961

Discovery of mRNA

1963

Discovery of interferon induction by mRNA

1969

First in vitro translation of isolated mRNA

1978

Development of liposome-mediated mRNA delivery

1984

In vitro transcription of mRNA

1990

Demonstration that naked mRNA injected into mice is translated

1992

Vasopressin mRNA injected to rat brain corrects disease

1995

First vaccinations with mRNAs encoding cancer antigens

1999

First anti-tumor T cell response after injection of mRNA in vivo

2001

Initiation of first clinical trial with mRNA using ex vivo transfected dendritic cells

2005

Discovery that nucleoside-modified RNA is non-immunogenic

2009

First human cancer immunotherapy using direct injection of mRNA

2010

iPSC generation with mRNA

2011

Nucleoside-modified mRNA corrects disease in preclinical study

2015

Moderna doses first subject in a clinical trial with mRNA investigational medicine

2017

First reports of mRNA-LNP formulation for in vivo vaccines against the Zika virus

2018

Moderna announces dosing of 755 subjects across 10 potential mRNA medicines to treat cancers, influenza, Chikungunya, and respiratory syncytial virus, among other disorders and diseases